Published by the National Agricultural Library, the Agricola database describes publications and resources encompassing all aspects of agriculture and allied disciplines including: animal science; veterinary science; entomology; plant science; forestry; aquaculture and fisheries; farming, farming systems and crops; agricultural economics; extension and education; food and human nutrition; and earth sciences and environmental sciences. The Bibliography of Agriculture is the print index to the agricultural literature going back to 1942 located on the Shields Library, Third Floor, at call number Z 5071 .U63

NOTE: default UCD Search Type set to Advanced Ovid Search.  IMPORTANT: The largest and most comprehensive agricultural literature database is CAB Abstracts.

UCD’s *most* important database on the biology, ecology, technology and management of marine, freshwater, and brackish water environments and organisms. Database consists of the following subfiles: ASFA 1: Biological Sciences and Living Resources; ASFA 2: Ocean Technology, Policy and Non-Living Resources; ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution and Environmental Quality; ASFA Aquaculture Abstracts; and ASFA Marine Biotechnology Abstracts.

Coverage: varies by subfile; 1971-present;earlier for selected core titles
Tags: Aquaculture, Biology, Fish Biology, Marine Biology
Related links: ASFA LibGuide [ProQuest] , Setting up Alerts

More than 25 million records in all life science areas, including agriculture, biochemistry, biomedicine, biotechnology, ecology, environmental sciences, genetics, microbiology, plant biology, veterinary medicine & pharmacology, and zoology. Indexes over 6000 journals, serials, books and book chapters, conference proceedings and patents.

Citations and abstracts to the international agricultural literature, including veterinary medicine, human and animal nutrition, forestry, rural development, as well as other related topics such as tourism and human ecology. Covers over 11,000 journals & conference proceedings and selected books in agriculture. Produced by CAB (Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux) International (CABI) with more than 11.6 million records as of 08/10/2016.

Coverage: 1910-present
Tags: Agriculture, Animals, Ecology, Plants, Science

References and abstracts on nursing, biomedical, allied health and consumer health literature. Also includes health care books, nursing dissertations, selected conference proceedings, standards of practice, educational software, audiovisuals and book chapters, as well as Evidence-Based care sheets. Full text is provided for hundreds of journals, plus legal cases, clinical innovations, critical paths, drug records, research instruments and clinical trials. Includes PreCINAHL as a companion database.

Coverage: -1982
Tags: Allied Health, Forensics, Medicine, Nursing



Embase is a biomedical and pharmacological database containing bibliographic records with citations, abstracts and indexing derived from biomedical articles in peer reviewed journals, and is especially strong in its coverage of drug and pharmaceutical research and conference abstracts.Embase contains over 22 million records spanning 1974-present, with over 1 million records added annually. Each record contains the full bibliographic citation, indexing terms, and codes; and 80% of all citations in Embase include author-written abstracts. The Embase journal collection is international with over 7,500 active peer-reviewed journals more than 90 countries. All MEDLINE records produced by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) are included, as well as over 5 million records not covered in MEDLINE. Broad biomedical scope covering the following areas:

  • Drug therapy and research, including pharmaceutics, pharmacology and toxicology
  • Clinical and experimental (human) medicine
  • Basic biological science relevant to human medicine
  • Biotechnology and biomedical engineering, including medical devices
  • Health policy and management, including pharmacoeconomics
  • Public, occupational and environmental health, including pollution control
  • Veterinary science, dentistry, and nursing
  • Psychiatry and mental health, including substance dependence and abuse
  • Forensic science
  • Alternative and complementary medicine
Coverage: 1974-current (for EMBASE records); 1966-current (for MEDLINE records)
Tags: Allied Health, Medicine, Nursing, Public Health

The ERIC Database indexes and abstracts education and education related journals, studies and reports, with links to full-text studies and reports from 1993 forward.

Coverage: 1966-present
Tags: Education

Citations from scholarly journals, conference proceedings, books, reports, and dissertations in physics, electrical engineering and electronics, computers and control, and information technology.


More than 27 million citations and abstracts for articles published in approximately 8,400 journals in medicine, life sciences, health administration, veterinary medicine, nursing, molecular biology and genetics. PubMed is a service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine on the NCBI platform.

PubMed Tutorial & more
Alerts/Automatic Updating Service (Saving & Managing Searches)
NLM Searching PubMed with Mesh tri-fold handout [PDF]
NLM PubMed Basics tri-fold handout [PDF]

Coverage: 1946-present
Tags: Animals, Dentistry, Medicine, Nursing, Veterinary Medicine

PsycINFO is a department of the American Psychological Association (APA). It provides citations to articles in professional journals, conference proceedings, books, reports, dissertations and even important internet sites in psychology and related disciplines, most with abstracts and some citations.

Coverage: 1840-present
Tags: Psychology

Offers access to information in all areas of toxicology, including chemicals and pharmaceuticals, pesticides, environmental pollutants, and mutagens and teratogens. TOXLINE is also part of TOXNET but the ProQuest version of TOXLINE has UC-eLinks which is not enabled in TOXNET.

Coverage: 2000-present
Tags: Forensics, Medicine, Toxicology

Web of Science combines traditional bibliographic searching of journal content across the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences with broadly interdisciplinary “cited reference” search capabilities.

Quick Reference Guide: Web of Science Core Collection
Saving Your Search & Setting Alerts
Creating Citation Alerts for Current Awareness

Coverage: See above description (varies between 9 indexes)
Tags: Science

Primary database for wildlife researchers. The world’s oldest continuing database of animal biology.  Comprehensive coverage of zoology; including behavior, conservation and environmental science, ecology, evolution, genetics, habitat, marine and freshwater biology, nutrition, parasitology and disease, reproduction, taxonomy and systematics, veterinary studies, zoogeography and fossil records. Especially strong in new species reports and field studies.

Coverage: 1864-present
Tags: Animals, Science

Published by the National Agricultural Library, the Agricola database describes publications and resources encompassing all aspects of agriculture and allied disciplines including: animal science; veterinary science; entomology; plant science; forestry; aquaculture and fisheries; farming, farming systems and crops; agricultural economics; extension and education; food and human nutrition; and earth sciences and environmental sciences. The Bibliography of Agriculture is the print index to the agricultural literature going back to 1942 located on the Shields Library, Third Floor, at call number Z 5071 .U63

NOTE: default UCD Search Type set to Advanced Ovid Search.  IMPORTANT: The largest and most comprehensive agricultural literature database is CAB Abstracts.


Bibliography on Alternatives to the Use of Live Vertebrates in Biomedical Research and Testing, National Library of Medicine


Site for news, information, discussion, and resources from the field of alternatives to animal testing

Australian and New Zealand Council for the Care of Animals in Research and TeachingMany useful resources including Fact Sheets, Newsletters, and publications.


Animal Welfare Information Center
Site for information for improved animal care and use in research, teaching, and testing


Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing. Johns Hopkins University

Global resources for the development of replacement, reduction and refinement alternatives for research and testing


Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (UK)Researching alternatives to animal use in research, testing, and education

An information resource for members and staff of institutional animal care and use committees. It is a link archive, organized by menus and submenus, produced by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS).

The Institute of Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR) evaluates and disseminates information on issues related to the scientific, technological, and ethical use of animals and related biological resources in research, testing, and education.

Mouse Model Lists, Inbred Strains of Mice and Rats, Mouse Genome Database, and more.

UCDavis, provides links to internet resources and databases for transgenic and targeted mutation research


UK-based National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement & Reduction of Animals in Research, Resources, Microsites, Hubs particularly useful.

NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods / Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods


Norwegian Inventory of Alternatives. Norwegian Reference Centre for Laboratory Animal Science and AlternativesDatabase of audiovisuals, computer programs, cd-roms, interactive videos, and other alternatives for use in the biological sciences

From NIH, this tool can be used to search a repository of both intramural and extramural NIH-funded research projects from the past 25 years, and access publications and patents resulting from NIH funding. The system also provides access to research supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). It retains all of the search capabilities of the former CRISP system, while providing additional query fields, hit lists that can be sorted and downloaded to Excel, NIH funding for each project (expenditures), and the publications and patents that have acknowledged support from each project (results).The results of the query are returned in a project listing that includes the project number, subproject identifier (if applicable), project title, contact principal investigator, performing organization, fiscal year of funding, NIH administering and funding Institutes and Centers (IC), and the fiscal year total costs provided by each funding IC. The project number, subproject id, and the project title are clickable and linked to more detailed information on several Project Information tabs, including Description, Details, Results, and Subprojects (for multi-project grants only).

Coverage: 1986-present
Tags: Multidisciplinary

Norecopa, in collaboration with the Animal Welfare Information Center has produced a database which provides an overview of guidelines, databases, journals, email lists, regulations and policies which may help researchers to implement the 3Rs when planning research that may involve animals.

The 3Rs-Centre Utrecht Life Sciences (ULS) stimulates the development, acceptation and implementation of 3Rs methods (replacement, reduction and refinement of animal experiments). Two databases: the Interspecies Database ( and the Humane Endpoints website (

Alternatives Search Resources

The federal Animal Welfare Act requires that local institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) review certain local research protocols involving the use of animals. To assure a broad review, IACUCs include local members outside the animal care and research communities. As a result, IACUCs and research support staff become involved in the education of these members, their incorporation into committee problem solving, and in ethical decision making. This guide is intended to provide a brief list of resources on the functions and administration of institutional animal care and use committees, including these three areas. We invite your suggestions for additions and changes to this information guide.

UCDavis Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee



Research Compliance and Integrity – UC Davis
A year-long program of brown bag lecture-discussion sessions jointly sponsored by the Office of Research and the Office of Graduate Studies. The objective is to provide researchers and students with information, training, and tools to address the increasingly complex issues that they will confront during their research careers. These sessions will be taught and facilitated by members of the faculty and administration, and guest speakers with particular knowledge and expertise of the RCR topics.
Training Classes – UC Davis
Training resources related to animal use & care, including classes, safetynets, and videos.
Utrecht University, Veterinary Medicine
Among colleges & universities, many offer training in animal care and handling either as part of staff training or as part of the regular curriculum. An outstanding example is the training offered at Utrecht for all young scientists. Offered at the graduate level, it provides information not only on the proper design of animal experiments, but also covers alternatives, animal welfare issues, and ethical aspects of animal experimentation. This international course on laboratory animal science is offered to non-residents as well.
AALAS Learning Library
Animal Care and Use in Research and Education. Provides training essential for technicians, veterinarians, managers, IACUC members, and investigators working with animals in research or education. Emphasizes appropriate handling, care, and use of animals.
Lab Animal Welfare Training Exchange (LAWTE)
Founded in 1994, LAWTE seeks to promote the exchange of training ideas and program strategies among research and training institutions for the purpose of improving the training programs. It focuses on training the research investigator, student, and iacuc member.
Laboratory Animal Training Association (LATA)
LATA is dedicated to producing training and CE materials on the humane care and use of research animals. The Institutional Training Program (ITP) is designed to provide documentation of compliance with federal regulations on training personnel. ITP consists of videos and software which address specific issues and topics. Participating institutions receive all video modules and updates as produced. Video sets are in modular format with interactive computer software designed to document the training, along with certificates of completion.


What animals want : expertise and advocacy in laboratory animal welfare policy
Carbone, Larry. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2004.
Carlson Health Sci Library W20.55 A5 C27 2004
The human use of animals : case studies in ethical choice
New York : Oxford University Press, 1998.
Carlson Health Sci Library W20.55 A5 H86 1998
Responsibility in the use of animals in bioscience research : Expectations of the major research council and charitable funding bodies
NC3Rs, BBSRC, MRC, NERC and Wellcome Trust.
Sourcebook of models for biomedical research
Totowa, N.J. : Humana Press, c2008.
Carlson Health Sci Library QY58 S724 2008
Laboratory animals in research and teaching : ethics, care, and methods
Washington, DC : American Psychological Association, c2005.
Carlson Health Sci Library QY50 L276 2005
The ethics of research involving animals
London : Nuffield Council on Bioethics, 2005.
The design of animal experiments : reducing the use of animals in research through better experimental design
London : Royal Society of Medicine, c2002.
Carlson Health Sci Library QY50 L22 no.14 2002
Animal training: a review and commentary on current practice
Proceedings of a symposium / organized by Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, held at the Peterhouse Theatre, University of Cambridge, 26th-27th September 1989.
Potters Bar, Herts, Eng. : Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, c1990.
Carlson Health Sci Library GV1829 A54 1990 Regular Loan
Education and training in the care and use of laboratory animals : A guide for developing institutional programs
Committee on Educational Programs in Laboratory Animal Science, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council. Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press, 1991.
The care and feeding of an IACUC : the organization and management of an institutional animal care and use committee
Boca Raton : CRC Press, c1999.
Shields Library HV4708 C35 1999 Regular Loan
“FELASA recommendations on the education and training of persons working with laboratory animals: categories A and C;
Reports of the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Association’s Working Group on Education accepted by the FELASA Board of Management.”
Laboratory Animals. 1995; 29:121-31 (FELASA Guidelines)
Guidelines on the handling and training of laboratory animals
prepared by the Biological Council Animal Research and Welfare Panel. Potters Bar. Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, 1992.
Carlson Health Sci Library SF406 G4 1992 Regular Loan
The UFAW Handbook on the Care and Management of Laboratory Animals, 7th edition. Editor T B Poole.
Two volumes, Volume 1 Terrestial vertebrates, Volume 2 Amphibious and aquatic vertebrates and advanced invertebrates. Blackwell Science 1999.
Carlson Health Sci Library QY50 U5 1999 Regular Loan

Searching Resources

Free Public Databases from NLM and NAL

Educational Alternatives Databases

Additional Information and Resources

Alternatives Search Guidelines (Complying with USDA Policies 11 and 12)

see also Alternatives Worksheet

Literature Search
A minimum of two database searches that reflects a serious effort to address the “3Rs” (refinement, replacement, reduction) is required by federal law. It is also important to show that the proposed use of animals is not unnecessarily duplicative of other studies previously performed.

The 3Rs are:

  • Refinement of technique to reduce or eliminate unnecessary pain and distress an animal may experience.
  • Reduction, which refers to an effort to reduce the number of animals used overall within the study.
  • Replacement refers to replacing animals with non-animal alternatives, non-mammalian or invertebrate species.  Alternatives could include in vitro methods that utilize organ, tissue and cell culture, computer simulation models, microorganisms, plants, or chemical techniques.
Result of Search for Alternatives
Indicate the results of this search for alternatives, and whether you were able to identify alternatives that are included in the studies proposed. If no alternatives have been found, and if no prior studies have been performed that indicate duplication, then state this within the framework of the objectives of the study. It is important to state the unique aspects of your study in relation to the published literature. Please also include any procedures you have performed that indicate your efforts to decrease the use of animals. This could include in vitro studies or those performed with invertebrate or non-mammalian species. This helps document your efforts toward employing the concepts of the 3Rs.

Searching for alternatives means considering ways to reduce, refine, or replace whenever there is proposed animal use in research, teaching, or testing.  While this guide will focus on the Animal Welfare Act and…

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Database Approach to a Search

Free Databases & Resources Proprietary Databases
Animal Model Selection
Fish / Frogs / Aquatic
Large / Farm Animal
Sheep, Swine
Non-Human Primates
Rodents – Rat, Guinea Pig, Hamster
Dogs, Cats


Free Databases & Resources
Proprietary Databases
Disease Models
Emerging Technologies:
Imaging, Cell Culture
Analgesia, Anesthesia
Standard Care:
Transportation, Behavior, Handling, Restraint, Identification

 Databases by Species/Model: Identifying potential models

Interspecies Database

Animal Model Selection : Potential Models

Free Databases
















Free Resources

Humane Endpoints

ANZCCART Fact Sheet:Pain

Ensembl Genome Browser

ILAR Animal Models

Intern’l Mouse Strain Resource

Mouse Genome Informatics

Mouse Models of Human-Cancers Consortium

NCI Mouse Models

NIH Model Organisms

UKCCCR Guidelines

NIGMS Trauma, Burn, Wound

Proprietary Databases



Dogs, Cats

Free Databases




Proprietary Databases



ISI Web of Science

Embedded Searches

sleep apnea

Sea Urchin Embryo

S. Cerevisiae (Budding Yeast)

Free Databases


Proprietary Databases


Web of Science

Embedded Searches

drug design

Neurospora (Filamentous Fungus)

Free Databases


NIH Resources

Proprietary Databases


Web of Science

Embedded Searches



D. Discoideum (Social Amoebae)

C. Elegans (Round Worm)

Free Databases


Proprietary Databases


Web of Science

Embedded Searches

neurological model

D. Melanogaster (Fruit Fly)

Free Databases



Proprietary Databases


Web of Science

Embedded Searches

neurodegenerative model


Free Databases


Proprietary Databases


Web of Science

Embedded Searches



Embedded Searches

Special Issues of Journals & full-text Articles

Humane endpoints in animal experiments for biomedical research
Proceedings of the International Conference 22-25 November 1998 Zeist, The Netherlands Laboratory Animals, Special Publication 2001. 28 papers.
Humane endpoints for animals used in biomedical research and testing
ILAR Journal 41(2):2000. Nine articles
2013 Report of the AVMA panel on euthanasia
Defining an acceptable endpoint in invasive experiments
Olfert, E. — AWIC Newsletter 1995, 6(1):3-7


Altweb: Alternatives to Animal Testing on the Web
AWIC: Animal Welfare Information Center
Humane endpoints
CCAC’s guidelines on choosing appropriate endpoint
ILAR: Institute for Laboratory Animal Research
3Rs Centre ULS : Humane Endpoints

Citations to select articles & chapters

Close, B.
Recommendations for euthanasia of experimental animals. 1.
Laboratory Animal 1996, 30(4): 293-316
Close, B.
Recommendations for euthanasia of experimental animals. 2.
Laboratory Animals 1997, 31(1): 1-32
Coenen, A.M.L.
Carbon dioxide euthanasia in rats – oxygen supplementation minimizes signs of agitation and asphyxia
Laboratory Animals 1995, 29(3):262-68
Cussler, K., Morton, D., Hendriksen, C.F.M.
Humane endpoints as a replacement for the estimation of lethality rates in the potency testing of rabies vaccines
ALTEX – Alternativen zu tierexperimenten 1998, (Suppl):40-42
Hackbarth, H., Kuppers, N.
Euthanasia of rats with carbon dioxide – animal welfare aspects
Laboratory Animals 2000, 34(1):91-96
Hamm, T.E.
Proposed institutional animal care and use committee guidelines for death as an endpoint in rodent studies
Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 1995, 34(3):69-71
Morton, D.B.
Ethical and refinement aspects of animal experimentation : Socio-economic and ethical aspects
In: Veterinary Vaccinology (eds. P.P. Pastoret, J. Blancou), Amsterdam:Elsevier, 1997. pp.763-785
Morton, D.B., Townsend, P.
Dealing with adverse effects and suffering during animal research
In: Laboratory animals : an introduction for experimenters, 2nd Ed (ed. A.A. Tuffery) UK:Wiley and Sons, 1995. pp215-231
Olfert, E.
Considerations for defining an acceptable endpoint in toxicological experiments
Lab Animal 1996, 25(3):38-43
Smith, W., Harrap, S.B.
Behavioural and cardiovascular responses of rats to euthanasia using carbon dioxide gas
Laboratory Animals 1997, 31(4):337-46
Ullman-Cullere, Mollie
Body condition scoring: a rapid and accurate method for assessing health status of mice
Laboratory Animal Science 1999, 49(3):319-323
Wolfensohn, S., Lloyd, M.
Recognition of pain and stress in laboratory animals
In: Handbook of laboratory animal management and welfare Chapter 11, pp.174-180. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ Press, 1994

Articles, regulations and resources regarding production of monoclonal antibodies and alternatives.


Policies and Recommendations

Institutional Animal Care and Use Guidelines

Guidelines for using the ascites method of monoclonal antibody production
Johns Hopkins Animal Care and Use
Guidelines for Ascites Production in Mice
Intramural Animal Care and Use (ACU), NIH
IACUC/LARC standard procedures on antibody production
University of California, San Francisco

IACUC Guideline Monoclonal & Polyclonal Antibody Production
              University of Pennsylvania

Monoclonal Antibody Production Guidelines
              University of Tennessee.